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American Rifleman article

While searching for a copy of  Liam McGranaghan’s “The Red-tailed Hawk: A Complete Guide to Training” I stumbled across an American Rifleman magazine (August 1965) on eBay.  The cover was a jessed red-tailed hawk.  It was going for nearly $10, more than I was willing to pay with shipping on the chance that the cover corresponded to an article in the magazine.  I checked the University of Arkansas library on the off chance they had it and lo-and-behold they’ve got every American Rifleman from 1945–1990.  I found the particular month I needed, but unfortunately there was no falconry article.  It was just the cover and a brief description of the photo on the inside of the cover.


American Rifleman, August 1976, cover

IMAG3611-1The brief note seems fairly disparaging about red-tails, as even though it is used to take game it is “comparatively slow, attaining speeds of approximately 50 m.p.h.”.  Funny how almost fifty years later many falconers have found the red-tail to be an excellent game hawk.  I was also surprised that only five states allowed falconry in 1965.  No wonder all of the stories from that time come out of California.


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“American Kestrels in Modern Falconry”

American Kestrels in Modern Falconry” by Matthew Mullinex is the only book that is dedicated to these tiny falcons.  Often overlooked as just an apprentice bird Mullinex demonstrates that kestrels can be excellent gamehawks when flown at the proper quarry (European sparrows and starlings) and have a place in modern falconry.

The book is pretty short at 139 pages with smallish pages and largish font.  I managed to read it in two days.  Still, there is more than enough here for an aspiring apprentice.  Mullinex covers natural history, the historic use of kestrels in falconry, and what bird to trap (which is not necessarily straight forward when many states allow haggards in addition to passagers to be trapped), in addition to fairly standard issues found in other introductory books such as trapping, manning and training, equipment, entering, weight control, and diet.  He emphasizes the importance of weight control, which may be tough for a first-year apprentice.  Kestrels have a flying window of 2-3 grams, and often within 1 gram.  In order to achieve that kind of control is is necessary to weigh the bird twice or more a day and feed it small portions twice or three times a day.

He also gives a substantial number of pages to different methods of hunting and accidents – important considerations when hawking these little birds.  Car hawking should be a pretty obvious choice as it lends itself to the generally short flights of kestrels at their best prey.  Mullinex also described pallet hawking – that is, sending a kestrel after sparrows that are hiding within stacked pallets often found around the back of stores and feed lots – and night roost hawking.

Like other introductory books, Mullinex provides appendices with an example of the first month of training and hood patterns.  These can be very useful to a new apprentice.  A few things I haven’t seen other places that I really like are a weight control and behavior chart, and disposition tables, which illustrates that kestrels are not lost or killed more than red-tailed hawks in falconry.

The book is peppered with photographs (b&w unfortunately) and line drawings.  One I particularly enjoy is a still-life, “Kestrel Fare”, because it plays upon the classic paintings of the game larder.


“Kestrel Fare” by Steve Hein

All-in-all, the book makes me confident that I could fly a kestrel.  It’s well-written and worth buying, especially if you don’t have another introductory-type book.  For the experienced falconer there is perhaps less here to be gained as much of it is covered elsewhere, though it may convince them that the kestrel isn’t just an apprentice bird to be ignored or scoffed as a serious choice for a gamehawk.

Finally, I like how he ends the book:

“There is room to explore here.  A true generalist, the American kestrel borrows at will from the falcons, accipiters, and buteos whatever is necessary to make the catch.  Already falconers are training kestrels to wait-on; some using kites to raise pitch.  How long can it be before balloons or dogs are added to the formula? The kestrel’s ability in a cast of two makes me wonder if three might not be the magic number for pursuit flights at quail? Imagine a group of sibling kestrels perched shoulder-to-shoulder, leaning toward the dog and a scaled quail just waiting to break.  One lifetime is too short to try it all.”

That sums up the book nicely and mirrors my own attitude toward falconry.

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“A Hawk for the Bush”

“A Hawk for the Bush: A Treatise on the Training of the Sparrowhawk and other Short-winged Hawks” was written by J. G. Movrogordato and initially published in 1960.  It quickly became a classic falconry work and a first-edition in good condition can often fetch $500 or more.  Thankfully a revised edition is currently available for much less and has more current information.  While Movrogordato wrote the book about training the Eurasian sparrowhawk the training techniques can be applied to any shortwing.

Movrogordato covers all of the basics of training a hawk, including the choice of hawk (he argues for the hacked eyass), rearing an eyass, breeding sparrowhawks, equipment, hood training, diet, and hunting. Most of this is applicable to North American austringers; some, such as hawking along hedge rows, is not, though can still be interesting to read.  I think his point about carrying the hawk is applicable to most birds – it’s either carry the bird on the fist and offer it no other perch during manning (quite difficult without friends willing to carry it throughout the night), or you must make it want to ride the fist and not carry it a second longer.  When it’s done eating replace it on the perch and do not pick it up until the next feeding.  Don’t try to carry it for long periods (even up to 18 hours a day, only to replace it on the perch so you can sleep, otherwise you will have the worst sort of bird.

He also included a chapter titled “Mishaps”.  While some of the information should be fairly common sense (such as change old jesses before they snap) it also includes things like imping feathers and how to find a lost bird (which is much easier now thanks to telemetry).  It is a good chapter for apprentices to read and take to heart.

While most of the book deals with eyass hawks Movrogordato does spend some time discussing sore hawks, which are hawks that are out of the nest and capable of flight (so older than branchers) but that haven’t left the nest area yet and continue to play with their siblings while they learn to hunt.  They fall somewhere between the eyass and passager as far as training and  temperament.  Not many authors discuss the sore hawk, though this interesting developmental stage is being rediscovered by falconers.  Many people cite Movrogordato’s discussion about it.

Included in the revised edition are chapters on health and disease, a chapter of short overviews of other shortwinged hawks, and appendices on how to make and Anglo-Indian hood and patterns for such a hood.  These definitely add to the book rather than detract. Some of Movrogordato’s hawking diary entries are also included.  Looking over these can be a good way to get a general idea of the speed at which a shortwinged hawk might be trained.

In addition, numerous drawings and paintings by R. D. Digby and G. E. Lodge are included as illustrations that were not in the original book.  I really liked many of these, they’re quite good and some art interspersed with pages of text always helps to liven up reading.

“Gasim Rizgala with female lanner Johara, Larry Crowley with tiercel saker Sindibad and Jack Mavrogordato with female peregrine Selema at Khartoum, Sudan”

One thing I enjoyed about the book is the dry humor.  For instance, he begins in the preface by stating:

“It has for some years been the lot of falconers to receive enquiries from would-be falconers anxious to train the sparrowhawk.  My own advice to all such has generally been identical with the famous piece of advice which Mr. Punch once gave to those about to marry*. Experience has, however, shown that well-meaning if negative recommendation has been almost as generally ignored…”

and down in the footnotes states:


Later on when discussing carriage training he states:

“Remember that sparrowhawks (unlike goshawks, in my experience) are most frightened of human beings, less so of dogs, and do not greatly object to machines.  Get them used to people, therefore, especially women and children.  Your hawk may be perfectly used to you and quite fearless in your presence but yet regard every other person she meets as if they were not merely a stranger but a different sort of animal altogether.  It is, therefore, a good plan to have the hawk carried by more than one person.

And, if your household is deficient in well-trained women and children, there is quite a lot to be said for the falconer getting himself up in “drag” and wearing skirts and fancy hats instead of the dull old clothes with which the hawk is so familiar.”

He later goes on to warn:

“Never forget that the relationship between you and your hawk is one of partners, not of master and servant.  Avoid the “I’m the master now” attitude.  Don’t swear at the hawk, however infuriating her behavior (easier said than not done, this).”

Great advice for any falconer, but it’s delivered in such a way that’s dryly humorous and serious at the same time.  I love it.

“Jack Mavrogordato, Renz Waller e Ernesto Coppaloni”

All in all, I really enjoyed reading “A Hawk for the Bush”.  There is a lot of information here, much more than can be had in one reading, so I’ll be picking it up again.

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“The Falconer’s Apprentice”

The Falconer’s Apprentice. A Guide to Training the Passage Red-tailed Hawk” by William C. Oakes was the first falconry book I ever read.  It’s quite short, only 173 pages, and has relatively small pages and large print.  It’s not the most technical manual about falconry ever written, but it is a very good introduction to the sport for someone who thinks they may be interested.

The book offers a step-by-step guide for the first year apprentice.  It starts with a short introduction to falconry as a sport and it’s history.  Next is a rather lengthy chapter devoted to pre-trapping preparations, such as game prospects in your area, building mews, equipment you’ll need, hawk food, and figuring out where you’ll hunt.  These are all very important aspects for the falconer-to-be to consider and may be enough to turn some people off.

The section on traps and trapping is very short, only two pages, as Oakes expects the apprentice to get most of their instruction in this from their sponsor.  And rightly so, the sponsor should be very involved in the trapping of an apprentice’s first bird.

Manning, feeding the bird and using food as a training tool, and flying a bird all follow in fairly rapid succession.  He treats hunting and game with some brevity, again because the sponsor should be involved with this.  The conditioning and diet chapter addresses what to feed the bird, different ideas on exercise, weight control, and keeping a log book.  He covers how to build a giant hood and how to use it in the short section on transportation.  The book finishes off with a chapter on releasing the bird back into the wild.

One aspect I really enjoyed about the book is the focus on ethics in falconry.  As much as some people would like to make it out to be, falconry is not a blood sport when practiced correctly.  While both falconer and hawk enjoy catching game, it’s not the head count that matters at the end of the season.  It’s the thrill of the flight, whether it ends in a kill or not, and enjoying being near a wild animal following it’s natural instincts and being allowed to join it.  There is a respect for the quarry.  I share his sentiment: “I accept the kill as a natural conclusion of, but not the ultimate reason for, the chase.”

The illustrations are acceptable.  They’re not the best I’ve seen in falconry books, but they serve the purpose.  Ideally an apprentice should see their sponsor’s equipment in hand to understand how it should look anyhow.

All in all I find this to be a good, if short, intorduction to falconry.  It’s best suited for someone who is on the fence as to whether they want to take the plunge or not as it does a good job as demonstrating how much effort is required to train and fly a hawk.  For a more serious apprentice it is best paired with a more comprehensive book though is still a good resource to have on hand.

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“The Passage Cooper’s Hawk and Those Who Fly ‘Em”

I stumbled across a thread on the NAFEX (North American Falconry Exchange) forum a few months ago advertising Bill Boni’s new book “The Passage Cooper’s Hawk and Those Who Fly ‘Em”.


Front cover

I’m intrigued by Coops and would like to fly one some day so decided to get the book.  The book is self published and in the thread Bill gave instructions on how to get a copy (basically mail him $20).  The thread can be found here:


Overall I’m very pleased with the book.  It’s set up as a series of chapters written by different austringers who have had success manning, training, and hunting passage Cooper’s hawks.  The book is pretty professionally made for a self-published book, though the pictures are a bit grainy.  There are also some mistakes as far as basic grammar, punctuation, and spelling that should have been corrected before publication, but not so many that it’s distracting to read.

Being set up as chapters of different people’s experiences has pros and cons.  There’s no single method of training spelled out in discrete steps, which might be annoying if that’s what you’re looking for.  However, after reading more than one or two chapters you start to see the commonalities between successful training and hunting regimes.

Many of the take away messages seem pretty self-evident to me, but perhaps they’re not to everyone:
1. Treat the hawk like an individual and respond to what it wants.  Don’t force a hawk to hunt from the fist if it would rather hunt from a tree.
2. Some people have success training Coops the same way they train a RT.  Other people deviate from that in various ways, such as using a strobe light in initially manning or start hunting them before they’re fully manned and finish training in the field.
3. Birds trapped at different times of year are very different.  People have had a lot of success with birds that are just out of the nest not being fed by their parents but also haven’t left the family group/nest area yet.  They have some traits of imprints in being easier to train but not the bad qualities like screaming or attacking the falconer for food. Conversely, birds trapped later in the season are still trainable but much more difficult or impossible to make do what you want; they are much more focused on hunting how they want and will not be good falconry birds if you try to force them into hunting how you want.
4. Weight control is important.  They’re small birds with pretty tight windows, though some people have had success increasing their weight as they become better trained through the season.
5. The most important point is that Cooper’s do make good falconry birds and aren’t the hell beasts some people make them out to be.  They take a lot of work and aren’t for everyone, but can be rewarding if you have the time.

All-in-all I think it’s well worth $20 (which includes shipping!), even if you’re not interested in fly a Coops.


Bill Boni and his Cooper’s hawk, from the last page of the book.


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